The Essence of Magic Realism


           Magic Realism has emerged as one of the more intriguing art terms over the past few decades. Often misunderstood and seldom embraced by critics and artists without reservations, Magic Realism occupies an important niche in art history, one which warrants more scholarly investigation and rigorous elucidation. A thorough survey of German art during the Weimar era, along with fresh assessments of the impact of Naive art, Metaphysical art and Surrealism on European and American artists during the four decades that followed World War I, are important exercises in developing a full understanding of Magic Realism. Also it is important to recognize that both style and content together create the "magic" in a Magic Realism painting, especially in works by the American Magic Realists of the 1940s and 50s.

         Many discussions about Magic Realism begin with historical references to the German writer Dr. Franz Roh and cite German art during the years of the Weimar Republic as the source of this type of art. However, Weimar art was diverse and an extensive review of this period is needed to appreciate the complex dynamics that  influenced German artists during the years following World War I. Many artists in fact transitioned between styles, adapting their approach as the social, political and economic environments changed. Traits of Magic Realism can be identified in many works of art painted in Germany during this era, but it is difficult to establish that a cohesive movement evolved. It is more accurate to describe Weimar art as a melting pot of styles which produced a broad range of Magic Realism paintings and which in turn was connected to a broader movement outside Germany.

~  Monograffi Fine Arts  ~

            Franz Roh coined the term Magic Realism in Nach-expressionsmus, magisher Realismus, Probleme der neuesten europaischer Malerei 1a, published in 1925. In his book Roh carefully detailed the stylistic characteristics of a new art movement which he called Post-Expressionism, and contrasted them with Expressionism. He gave this new type of art the byname Magic Realism, in order to suggest what he considered its special evocative qualities. In June 1925, Gustav Hartlaub opened an exhibition Die Neue Sachlichkeit in Mannheim. Roh and Hartlaub seemed to focus on similar art when first commenting on Post-Expressionism, art which was moving away from abstraction and emotionally charged imagery. Hartlaub initially emphasized that he saw a division of two separate wings within this type of art, a classically oriented right wing and a socially critical left one 1b. Roh helped him in organizing the exhibition, but he avoided supporting Hartlaub's bipolar outlook. Roh felt instead that there was a singular movement away from Expressionism, which had many manifestations and which was also evident in other European countries.

          Hartlaub first tried to organize his exhibition in 1923, however hyperinflation made that impossible. He finally succeeded in 1925. In the catalog he emphasized that the exhibition was not opposed to Expressionism, but  that it was presenting a new type of art that was emerging in Germany. Artworks by Verist (socially critical) artists like Otto Dix and George Grosz were included, but Hartlaub took great pains not to include controversial or provocative works, hoping to avoid any negative repercussions. The exhibition received strong support from the press and it made a profound impression on the public. Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) became a label applied by many writers when referring to the typical representational styles that developed during Weimar period. Within a short time after the exhibition many German artists adopted a cool, detached, matter-of-fact style, which was particularly evident in portraits. This style became palatable to bourgeois tastes, and the last vestiges of Expressionism were shed. Unfortunately, the National Socialists took control of Germany in 1933, and the Weimar era ended. The Nazis installed an official state approved style, das Blut und Boden (Blood and Soil). Within a few years many works by the prominent artists of Neue Sachlichkeit were branded as Degenerate Art. Many paintings were confiscated; some were publically burned. Post-Expressionism by any name came to an end. Roh's term Magic Realism was never widely used in Germany during the Weimar era, but his concepts were well known in artistic circles and spread within Europe and eventually to the Americas.

          A review of Hautlaub's Die Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition catalog reveals that almost half of paintings presented were produced by either Max Beckmann or by painters associated with Munich (Schrimpf, Kanoldt, Mense, Erbsloeh, Schulz-Matan and Daveringhausen). Franz Roh lived near Munich and followed developments there closely. Many historians subsequently identified the Munich artists as central to Roh's Magic Realism. Most of these artists dispersed by 1926, and Munich lost its role as the most important center of Post-Expressionism. With regard to Max Beckmann, Hartlaub considered him to be the leader of the new movement. However, by 1925 Beckmann had shifted away from his Magic Realist phase, and moved toward a more individualistic style, one ultimately integrated diverse influences, including Cezanne, Grünewald, Brueghel and medieval stained glass.          

          Franz Roh stated that Magic Realism should not simply bring back "the more neutral art of Courbet and Leibl" 1c. He opposed any revival of 19th Century academic art, feeling that artists should avoid regression. Kanoldt, Schrimpf and Mense of the Munich group all had connections with Italian art through various Deutsch-Römer 19th Century artists, but they were also heavily influenced by a number of Italian contemporary artists, particularly Carlo Carra and Giorgio de Chirico. A number of important German artists outside Munich were also influenced by de Chirico's art, including Anton Raederschidt, George Grosz, Rudolf Dischinger, Felix Nussbaum and Max Ernst. The paintings of Henri Rousseau, the French primitivist, had an even broader influence on Weimar art. Naive nuances are apparent in the works of many German artists, including those by Max Beckmann,  Carl Grossberg, Georg Scholz, Wilhelm Schnarrenberger, Ernst Thoms, Niklaus Stoeklin, Grethe Jüergens, Erich Wegner, Walter Spies, Niklaus Stoeklin, Gyorgy Stefula and Adolf Dietrich. In his 1957 book, L'Art magique, Andre Breton wrote "with Rousseau we can for the first time talk about Magic Realism" 1d. .

          The postwar period saw the spread of a counter-Modernist movement in the arts, known as the Return to Order (or Call to Order), which included the revival of many traditional painting techniques. In Italy Il Novecento Italiano in particular stood out in this regard, through the paintings of Felice Casorati, Achille Funi, Ubaldo Oppi, Gino Severini and Antonio Donghi., as did works by Andre Derain,  Felix Vallotton and Auguste Herbin in France. Around 1925 a strong tendency toward precision emerged within German art. This was partially due to the success of Hautlaub's exhibition but the trend was also supported by a steady influx of new artists. Many artists became interested in the art of the early Renaissance and adopted techniques based on their careful studies of the Flemish and German Masters. By the mid 1920s numerous intensely detailed paintings began to appear, sometimes exhibiting an almost unnatural realism. Often the "magic" of these paintings was embedded in the details of the work, by juxtaposition or isolation of objects, or by an unusual perspective. Important variations of Magic Realism developed from this tendency. The paintings of Franz Radziwill are good examples, as he often instilled an eerie  atmosphere into his works by an unusual color palette. Equally notable were architectonic paintings of Carl Grossberg, who sometimes added uncanny elements to his works such as bats, birds or apes. The portraits of Otto Dix manifested a versatility in capturing "types" of German people of the 1920s. Meanwhile Christian Schad studied Raphael and other Italian Masters while living in Naples during the early 1920s. Schad's paintings consistently exhibited a cool and almost photographic sharpness, but he often included both naive and metaphorical elements. His paintings are often cited by art historians as the quintessential art of Neue Sachlichkeit. Many of Schad's paintings also exhibit unusual and intangible qualities connecting him to Magic Realism, particularly during his stays in Naples and Vienna, and after World War II.

          An important characteristic of Magic Realism is ultrasharp focus. Sharp detail is seen throughout many painting, including in the background. Highly defined and even exaggerated detail may also appear selectively in areas that the artist wishes to accentuate. The overall effect is to move the viewer's attention all over the painting, before the totality of the composition can be comprehended. This same effect frequently occurs in naive paintings and also occurred in many works by the German and Flemish Renaissance Masters. Another characteristic often seen in Magic Realism paintings is an almost unnatural clarity. In many cases this stemmed from a flattened tonality and/or idealized lighting, or from suppression and/or selective use of shadows. As a result of these factors, many Magic Realism paintings exhibit a false naturalism.  

         A focus on objects helped to define the works of German artists during the Weimar years. Franz Roh stated that Magic Realism "employs various techniques that endow all things with a deeper meaning and reveal mysteries that always threaten the secure tranquility of simple and ingenious things...  it is a question of representing before our eyes, in an intuitive way, the fact, the interior figure, of the exterior world"1e. He spoke of a "gegenstandlichkeit', or a sensitivity to objects. Many of Roh's comments  about Magic Realism stem from his interest in phenomenology, a philosophical methodology which studies structures within our consciousness. Roh commented further about the emergence of Magic Realism "the autonomy of the objective world around us was once more enjoyed; the wonder of matter that would crystallize into objects was to be seen anew" 1f. These comments echo those by De Chirico who wrote "Every object has two aspects: the common aspect, which is the one we generally see and which is seen by everyone, and the ghostly metaphysical aspect which only rare individuals see at moments of clairvoyance and metaphysical meditation. A work of art must relate something that does not appear in its visible form" 1g.

           In his 1925 book Franz Roh enumerated the stylistic characteristics of Magic Realist paintings as compared to Expressionism. He envisioned Magic Realism as a broad movement, one which was also evident outside of Germany. Roh identified seven sources for Magic Realism. Each of these sources initiated a distinctive type of art. The multifaceted origins of Magic Realism have been overlooked by many writers and critics, many of whom promoted narrowed definitions of the art term. However, most of these variants fit under Roh's broad umbrella of Magic Realism.

          Roh emphasized that Magic Realism should not bring back the Naturalism which was prevalent in the last decades of  the 19th Century. Rather than depending on mere mimesis, Roh said that the new art should always originate in the artist's imagination. In many cases Magic Realism results from a synthesis, often from the combined influences of more than one of these types of art. Roh's sources 1h for Magic Realism were as follow:

  • Neoclassical - roughly Hartlaub's right wing. More apparent in Italian art, especially Il Novocento Italiano.

  • Socially Critical - the so-called Verism of Grosz, Dix, Schlicter and others.

  • Metaphysical - art influenced by Metaphysical paintings.

  • Naive - art influenced by Henri Rousseau or by neo-primitivism (Carra).

  • Hardened Expressionism - Beckmann, Carl Hofer, Albert Birkle and others.

  • Constructivists artists in Germany and France, including Oskar Schlemmer and the French Purists.

  • Colorists working with a new type of tonal painting, including Hermann Huber.

          The first five groupings proved to be the most important. This overall diversity was not without precedent in major art movements. For example, Post-Impressionism refers to broad divergences from Impressionism in the 1880s and 90s. Both Symbolism and Surrealism were complex movements, notable for considerable variations in origin, style and content. The initial multiformity of Magic Realism as seen in the early 1920s narrowed over time. Several variations evolved and coalesced into national types, mainly in Italy, the Netherlands and in the Americas.

         The Surrealist movement developed in the 1920s mainly along two important paths. Initially it was driven by writers in their works of automatism, arising from the exploration of the subconscious and free association. In the late 1920s and 1930s veristic surrealism developed in the visual arts, initially sharing some traits of Magic Realism. In many early works from the 1920s, particularly those of Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte, the characteristics of Magic Realism were quite evident. However by the early 1930s veristic Surrealism increasingly incorporated fantastic imagery, biomorphism and irrational elements which distanced it from Magic Realism.

           German artists developed a fascination with a newly found world of objects during the Weimar period, fueled by a technological revolution and the emergence of a mass culture. At the same time, the political and economic instability during the interwar period fomented alienation of the individual and caused intense cultural anxieties. The manifestations of these insecurities was evident in the use by artists of visual devices, some of which Giorgio de Chirico referred to as defamiliarization, or making the ordinary seem strange. Thus came about the development of "The Uncanny", an aesthetic which became as important to Magic Realism as the sublime had been for Romanticism in the previous century. The Uncanny was often seen in representational art produced between 1920 and 1960. Introduced by Sigmund Freud in a 1919 essay, the term did not enter scholastic discourse until the mid-1960s 1i  yet it was already prevalent in both German and American Magic Realism.. It can arise simply from the isolation of objects within a painting. From the mid 1930s on it became an important, if not an essential, component of Magic Realism, although in some cases its presence appears to be subtle, or at least not readily obvious.

           In the late 1920s Magic Realism developed in other European countries and in the Americas. This was also a time in which Surrealism began to build up steam as an art movement, and it was to soon overshadow Magic Realism. Andre Breton, as the foremost organizer of Surrealism, actively recruited both in Europe and North America. His efforts did not always bear fruit. As Fridha Kahlo bluntly put it, "I never paint dreams or nightmares. I paint my own reality" 1j. In France and Belgium, artists like Pierre Roy and Paul Delvaux, both admirers of Giorgio de Chirico, produced works that bordered on an improbable reality. Important Magic Realist active during the 1930s included Balthus in France, Cagnaccio di San Pietro and Gregorio Sciltian in Italy, Edward Wadsworth and Tristram Hillier in England, as well as Antonio Berni in Argentina. During the same period, Dutch artists Carel Willink, Raoul Hynckes, Dick Ket, Wim Schumacker and Pyke Koch worked in an imaginative type of Realism to establish a strong tradition of Dutch Magic Realism, one which lives on to our present day. Pyke Koch provided a concise definition of the mission of the Magic Realist, "Magic Realism is based on the representation of what is possible, but not probable" 1k.

        In the 1920s an important development in American art occurred, which was at first referred to as Cubist Realism, then as the Immaculate School and eventually as Precisionism. The movement encompassed a range of styles, from abstraction to an early type of photorealism, and covered architectural and industrial subject matter along with the vernacular and provincial. The most prominent of the Precisionists was Charles Sheeler, who developed a realistic style in the late 1920s, reminiscent of Neue Sachlichkiet. Sheeler and several other painters associated with Precisionism were also among the first Americans to produce Magic Realism.       

       In the 1920s American artist Grant Wood made several study trips to Europe. He came away most impressed with the precision and clarity that he saw in the works of the old Flemish masters, especially those of Jan van Eyck and Hans Memling. He also saw firsthand the developments occurring in German  contemporary art. Two distinct types of Magic Realism appear in his work produced after 1930. First his portraits are done in the style of the Flemish and German masters and include both obvious and subtle symbolism. In his landscapes, he often makes use of naive stylizations and miniaturization. Though Grant Wood is generally considered to be one of the three major Regionalist painters, many of his paintings are wonderful examples of Magic Realism.

         During the 1930s the Great Depression had a signification impact on American artists. Many struggled to make a living and sought government support in the WPA Federal Art Project. An indigenous type of academic art developed in the United States during the 1930s, which is referred to as The American Scene. The subject matter chosen by many artists during this period was often anecdotal, either involving some aspect of social commentary (Social Realism) or portraying the regional characteristics of American rural culture (Regionalism). A wide range of styles developed during this period, from academic naturalism to naive stylization, and including an indigenous expressionism. Meanwhile Surrealism was formally introduced in the U.S. in late 1931 at an exhibition titled "Newer Super Realism" at the Wadsworth Athenuem in Hartford, CT. Included were works by De Chirico, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst and Pierre Roy. A new variation of American art was spawned during the 1930s, called Social Surrealism, which was a blend of Surrealism with Social Realism. Paintings by James Guy and Walter Quirt were typical. Generally American painters were less interested in psychoanalytical introspection and probing of the subconscious than their European counterparts, and their interactions with Surrealism were defined by an American iconography and outlook. In the 1930s many artists produced works that incorporated fanciful elements, but they did so within the context of a basically realist framework. Strange, mysterious or  uncanny elements were often embedded in many paintings, and narratives were often ambiguous or partially hidden. A new type of American art evolved, Realism with overtones of Surrealism. This art became known as Magic Realism. The painters of the 1930s often cited as producing this type of art included Ivan Albright, Peter Blume, Ben Shahn, O Louis Guglielmi and Philip Evergood.

        The late 1930s saw an emigration of European artists to  the Americas, including many connected with the Surrealism movement. These artists were not always well received by their American counterparts, and lived mostly in isolation. Most of the Surrealists settled in New York City, yet when Breton arrived in 1941 he was unable to remobilize the formal movement. Regardless of cultural barriers and the fact that it failed to flourish as an American movement, Surrealism had a rather significant impact on American art during the 1930's and 40s, providing liberation from conventionalism and the prevailing attitudes that had previously favored Regionalism. Surrealism also had a significant influence in the development of Abstract Expressionism.

         In 1943 an exhibition entitled "American Realists and Magic Realists" 1l was assembled at the Museum of Modern Art in New York by Dorothy C. Miller. Many young artists who would help develop Magic Realism into a mature movement were represented in this exhibition, including Jared French, Paul Cadmus, Charles Rain and Andrew Wyeth. Within a few years George Tooker,  Henry Koerner, Robert Vickery, John Wilde and Canadian Alex Colville began to produce paintings which we now identify with Magic Realism. All of these artists used Tempera techniques, which dated back to the Early Renaissance. Their paintings were carefully crafted objects of art, with imagery that was infused with metaphoric and symbolic elements. Some of the paintings by these artists featured "surreal"  or dream-like nuances. Yet none of the American Magic Realists were directly connected with the Surrealist movement. In many ways the developments of Magic Realism in the 1940s bypassed and surpassed Surrealism in the Americas. During the 1950s many of the artists associated with Magic Realism exhibited at the Edwin Hewitt Gallery in New York City, and the movement had a significant following..

          Although sharing some common ground, the approach of the Magic Realist differed greatly from that of the Surrealist. In contrast to methods that encouraged the spontaneity and irrationality of Surrealism, the Magic Realists carefully planned and meticulously executed intricate compositions. George Tooker once stated "It is the novelty and shock value of the surrealists that disturbs me. I am after painting reality impressed on the mind so hard that it recurs as a dream; but I am not after painting dreams as such, or fantasy" 1m.

        In the late 1940s and early 50s Magic Realism flourished, distinguishing itself from other movements such as Social Realism and Surrealism. During this period Magic Realism also helped to carry the banner of Realism, during the heyday of the Abstract Expressionist movement. The art establishment of the day marginalized representational art. Only in the late 1960s did the pendulum of tastes began to swing away from abstract styles. However Photorealism and Hyperrealism, with a more detached approach to content, became the preferred approach for a new generation of artists. Fortunately American Magic Realists have not been forgotten and finally received some overdue recognition in recent years.  

            Franz Roh's insights regarding Magic Realism were made during the first few years of the new movement. Almost 90 years later, we have the advantage of being able to look backwards and reevaluate Roh's multifaceted groupings. It now seems more useful to base groupings on prevalent types and sensibilities, rather than purely on origin. Here is one possible set of reappraised groupings. 

  • Naive - the naive influence was especially important during the early years, with roots in primitive and folk art.

  • Architectonic - Industrial landscapes. cityscapes and townscapes were common themes. Includes many works by Precisionists painters.

  • Illusionistic - this best describes the usage of various devices and techniques that were borrowed from historical art to cast contemporary subjects in an unusual manner.

  • Socially Engaged - includes German Verism and some works of American Social Realism.

  • Enigmatic - includes art influenced by Metaphysical art and art  that contains "The Uncanny".

  • Metaphoric - the importance of personal and contemporary metaphors is seen in the advanced works by many Magic Realists.

  • Quintessential -  The revival of interest in Renaissance realism by artists in the four decades following World War I combined with contemporary themes to develope a new sensibility.

Because of its broad and somewhat paradoxical nature, it is difficult for many people to get a grasp of Magic Realism conceptually. Franz Roh intended it to be an inclusive rather than an exclusive term. While at times Magic Realism provided an unflinching or raw look at humanity, it often took a more oblique or evasive point of view. Often cold, discompassionate and detailed, Magic Realism raised more questions about life than it provided answers. It attempted to mesmerize rather than demystify. Regardless of what definition one applies, it is important to understand that Magic Realism was in fact one of the major trends of Realism during the first half of the 20th Century. Magic Realism thus found a significant niche between Straight Realism and American Scene painting on one side and Surrealism on the other.

          Magic Realism describes a type of art that flourished during the four decades following World War I. Initially defined by its ultrasharp focus, coldness and other technical characteristics, its contemporary content distinguished it from the Realism of the 19th Century. It often contained subtle twists of the quotidian, but in a broad sense most Magic Realism paintings emerged from a Weltanschauung (worldview), stemming from the pressures of the massive social events which transformed society in the first half of the 20th Century. Initially seen as a stylistic reaction to the latter phases of  Expressionism, Magic Realism was redefined by American artists in the 1940s and 50s, often referring to intricately detailed works of art depicting everyday life as something familiar but at the same time as something strange or unnatural. Magic Realism was never purely illusionistic, almost always having a strong psychological component.

          Magic Realism differs from many other art movements in that most of the artists associated with it did not consider themselves part of an avant garde and preferred to remain clear of the publicity and controversies of the art establishment. This was a movement of independent artists, without champions or manifestoes. As a result, the general public as well as many art critics were never quite clear about what the term actually meant. At the same time, there is no doubt that a widespread current within figurative painting occurred during the four decades that followed World War I, a movement that is distinguishable from Expressionism, Surrealism and Social Realism. Magic Realism quietly developed from many commonalities among artists that included an affinity for the traditions of techniques, and a love of art history. Magic Realists also shared a collective awareness of mankind's struggle to adapt to the many insecurities of the modern world. Most of the major practitioners of Magic Realism have now passed on, yet they have left us a magnificent legacy.  

"They (Magic Realists) used a form of stylization whereby the observed phenomenon was reduced to its essence, confirming the oneness of the gestalt despite the multiplicity of its aspects. Notwithstanding their avowed goal of capturing the appearance of momentary phenomenon with the utmost fidelity, their unconscious aim was to transcend the many contingent modes of reality and create an eidos, an abstract essential form ; therefore their realism was never quite "real", but rather a synthesis of their perceptions expressed in the disciplined, methodical treatment of the painted image: the experience of vision. This phenomenon is inseparably associated with appearance as phantasia." Art Historian Edith Balas, from The early works of Henry Koerner, 1945-1957.


1a) page 16 - Magic Realism Rediscovered, 1918-1981, Seymour Menton, Art Alliance Press, London, c1983.

b) page 18 - New Objectivity Neue Sachlichkeit - Painting in Germany in the 1920s, Sergiusz Michalski, Taschen, 2003.

1c) page 113 - German Art in the 20th Century. Franx Roh, Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, Ltd, 1958.

1d) page 57 - Magic Realism Rediscovered, 1918-1981, Seymour Menton, Art Alliance Press, London, c1983.  

1e) page 24 - Magic Realism: Theory, History, Community, edited by Lois Parkinson Zamora, Wendy B. Faris, Duke University Press, 199

1f) page 24 - Magic Realism: Theory, History, Community, edited by Lois Parkinson Zamora, Wendy B. Faris, Duke University Press, 199

1g) page 182 - Wonder and Exile in the New World, by Alex Nava, Penn State University Press, 2013.

1h) page 154 - German Post-Expressionism, Dennis Crockett, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999

1i) Introduction - The Unconcept, The Freudian Uncany in Late-Twentieth-Century Theory, SUNY Press, 2011.

1j) Frida Kahlo quoted in Time Magazine, "Mexican Autobiography" (27 April 1953)

1k) page 23 - Magic Realism Rediscovered, 1918-1981, Seymour Menton, Art Alliance Press, London, c1983.

1l American Realist and Magic Realist, Catalog, MOMA, New York, Introduction by Lincoln Kirsten, 1943.

1m) Page 24 - Reality Recurs as A Dream - George Tooker, D.C. Moore Gallery 2011.

Recommended Reading:
Magic Realism Rediscovered, 1918-1981,
Seymour Menton, Art Alliance Press, London, c1983.

American Realism, Edward Lucie-Smith , Thames & Hudson, 2002.

American Realist and Magic Realist, Catalog, MOMA, New York, Introduction by Lincoln Kirsten, 1943.

German Art in the 20th Century. Franx Roh, Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, Ltd, 1958.

German Post-Expressionism, Dennis Crockett, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.

Illusions of Reality, Naturalist Paiunting, Photography and Cinema, 1875-1918, Gabriel P. Weisberg, Van Gogh Museum, Ateneum Art Museum, Mercatorfonds, 2011

Magic Realism: Defining the Indefinite, Jeffrey Weshsler, Art Journal, Winter 1981.

Magic Realism: An American Response to Surrealism (Exhibition Catalog / June 12-September 6, 1999) - Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art, Loretto, Pennsylvania.

Magic Realism: Theory, History, Community, edited by Lois Parkinson Zamora, Wendy B. Faris, Duke University Press, 1995.

New Objectivity Neue Sachlichkeit - Painting in Germany in the 1920s, Sergiusz Michalski, Taschen, 2003.

Realism and Realities. The Other Side of American Painting 1940-1960, Greta Berman and Jeffrey Wechsler, New Brunswick Rutgers University, 1982.

Realism, Rationalism, Surrealism - Art between the Wars by Briony Fer, David Batchelor and Paul Wood, Yale University Press 1993, ISBN 0-300-05518-8

Reality Recurs as A Dream - George Tooker, D.C. Moore Gallery 2011

Surrealism and American Art 1931-1947, Jeffrey Wechsler, Rutgers University Art Gallery, 1977 (exhibition catalog)

The Uncanny, Nicholas Royle, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2003.

The Unconcept, The Freudian Uncany in Late-Twentieth-Century Theory, SUNY Press, 2011.


Georg Kremer  -  Email: 



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